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Revista Universitaria de Histora Militar, June 2014, 165-185.
Histoire@Politique, 22, Janvier – Avril 2014
La Première Guerre mondiale demeure, cent ans après le déclenchement du conflit, au cœur du récit national britannique et continue de provoquer des débats virulents. Dans ce contexte, l’historiographie de l’expérience britannique du conflit se distingue par un dynamisme et une ouverture disciplinaire renforcés par l’internationalisation de ce champ d’étude. La recherche se concentre désormais sur l’adaptation de la société et de l’armée britanniques aux conditions nouvelles de la guerre industrielle. Trois questions majeures traversent donc la production scientifique : celle de la transformation de l’appareil militaire britannique ; la mobilisation de la société et de l’économie de la Grande-Bretagne ; l’impact et les legs de la Grande Guerre outre-Manche.
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The report of the Working Group on Expanding Access to Published Research Findings, chaired by Dame Janet Finch CBE was published in June 2012. Entitled Accessibility, sustainability, excellence: how to expand access to research publications, it is commonly referred to as the “Finch Report”.
According to its terms of reference, the Working Group was asked to consider “how to expand access to the quality-assured published outputs of research” defined as journal articles, conference proceedings and monographs. The report largely ignores the latter two categories to concentrate on articles published in peer-reviewed journals. In keeping with conventional policy-making wisdom, it was also asked to adopt an evidence-based approach.
The following was written to inform the discussion and eventual response of the International Society for First World War Studies1. With over 300 members in 27 countries, the Society is the largest network of First World War scholars in the world2. Founded in 2001, this interdisciplinary organisation launched its peer-reviewed journal in 2010; First World War Studies is published by Taylor & Francis.
To ensure that scientific publications be free at the point of access, the report recommends that an Article Processing Charge (APC) be levied at the point of publication. In other words, authors will be required to pay a fee to publish their work. This mechanism is also referred to as Gold Open Access (Gold OA) and would replace the current model based on subscriptions.
The Report calls for a “ clear policy direction … towards support for publication in open access or hybrid journals, funded by APCs, as the main vehicle for the publication of research, especially when it is publicly funded” (97).
Many learned societies and professional organizations including the Royal Historical Society, the British Academy, the American Historical Association and the German History Society have expressed their serious reservations about the report. They have done so with more authority than I could ever muster and I do share their concerns. Though I am convinced, like many colleagues, that open access to research findings will bring undeniable intellectual, scientific, economic and social benefits, I don’t believe the Finch Report has drawn a convincing road map to a fairer and more efficient system of scholarly communication.